TORAH EMETH

lundi 25 novembre 2013

THE NAME YHWH

HOW DOES THE NAME IS SPOKEN!
Daniel ben Ya'acov Ysrael

Today in this short overview, I would like to present two documents from very old sources.
The First is from the "LENINGRAD ALEPO CODEX":
These two codex use the masoret vowels signs for the prounciation.
Le Codex d'Alep (en hébreu כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא Keter Aram Tsova) est la plus ancienne version connue de la Bible hébraïque selon la massora tibérienne. Il aurait été écrit entre 910 et 930 de notre ère.(Source Wikipedia)

The second one is the CAIRO CODEX. We will see why these two codex are important in understanding the pronunciation of the Name.
I will post first one specific passage from the Alepo Codex concerning to demonstrate how the Alepo codax use the "cholem" vowel ("O" sound):
In English frist fro those who do not read Hebrew:
Number 13:16 These are the names of the men which Moses sent to spy out the land. And Moses called Hoshea the son of Nun Yehoshua.

This is about the writting form of, Moshe, Hoshea and Yehoshua in Hebrew:
Num 13:16 אֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות הָֽאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לְהֹושֵׁעַ בִּן־נוּן יְהֹושֻֽׁעַ׃
We can clearly see that the names Moshe, Hoshea, and Yehoshua, all have a "cholem" on the "mem" and the "He" to make the sound Mo-she, Ho-shea, and Yeho-shua.

I took this example because it embed the masoret understanding concerning the use of the vowels and specificaly the "cholem" for the sound "O".
Now let us look at some few other places concerning the theophoric Name of Elohim. I just pic some few, they are all with the same writting in the LENINGRAD ALEPO CODEX FROM 910CE - 930CE.
Gen 2:4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that יהוה Elohim made the earth and the heavens,

B'reshit/Gen 2:4 אֵלֶּה תֹולְדֹות הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּֽרְאָם בְּיֹום עֲשֹׂות יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָֽיִם׃
We see the tetragramaton written Yod with a shevet under it, the letter "He" without the "cholem",vowel "O", but the  "kamatz" vowel under the letter "vav" for the sound "a".
I will post some few other examples just to show that I don't fix on one verse, you can check other places fro yoursel.
It is note worthy in this place to point that in Gen.2:4 according to the rules, the Name should be read: YeHWAH/YeHVAH. 
Exod 3:15 And Elohim said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, יהוה Elohim of your fathers, the Elohim of Abraham, the Elohim of Isaac, and the Elohim of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
Exod 3:15 וַיֹּאמֶר עֹוד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּֽה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּֽר׃
Here again we see the Name YHWH written without the "cholem" vowel, but "ELOHE" written with a "cholem" ("O") on the "lamed", the letter "L"! This is not a coincidence, every word with a "O" sound will have a "cholem" to sound "O".

Another example:
Isa 43:10 Ye are my witnesses, saith יהוה, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no El formed, neither shall there be after me.
We are going to look at the words, YHWH, and the adverb "Lo" (not)
Isa 43:10 אַתֶּם עֵדַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְעַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתִּי לְמַעַן תֵּדְעוּ וְתַאֲמִינוּ לִי וְתָבִינוּ כִּֽי־אֲנִי הוּא לְפָנַי לֹא־נֹוצַר אֵל וְאַחֲרַי לֹא יִהְיֶֽה׃ ס
Here again we see the "cholem" vowel on the letter "lamed" for "Lo", but not for the teophoric Name YHWH.

Now we are going to look at one Picture taken from the Cairo Codex . According to its colophon, it was written complete with punctuation by Moses ben Asher in Tiberias "at the end of the year 827 (Source Wikipedia).
So we can say that this codex superseed the LENINGRAD CODEX FROM  MOREN THAN ALMOST 100 Years.


Here in the yellow background we see the teophoric Name YHWH written: Yod with the sheva*, He with the "Cholem" for the sound "O", vav with the "kamatz" for the sound "a", and the final "He". Thus the Name is read YeHOWAH, or YeHOVAH.
*The sheva is a silent vowel, which inflex the sound to the letter itself, in this case the "yod" a short sound "ye", from Ye-HOWAH.

Today there is no other known document (at least to me) who bear witness of the pronunciation of the Name of Elohim. This is also for those who claim the Name Yaweh or Yahuwah. They should search for an old document to prove that Yahweh of Yahuwah is a solide view of the Name.
Some attack the masoret and their manipulation. Here we have a witness from the 7th century CE that the pronunciation of the Name was well known, and the scribes, willingly removed the "cholem" to hide the true pronunciation, EXCEPT in Ezekiel 28:22 where the "cholem" is preserved, may be to give proof that they knew the true name was YeHOWAH/YeHOVAH and not YeWAH/YeVAH. In no case YAWEH/YAVEH or YAHUWAH.

Shalom




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