jeudi 9 octobre 2014

Languages spoken by Josephus?

Josephus knew Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (which he must have learned when he was in the service of the the Roman Emperor Vespasian, if not earlier). A quick look on JSTOR turns up this article for reference.
In Tessa Rajak's book "Josephus" (Appendix 1), she considers whether Aramaic or Hebrew was his primary language. She concludes that, while we cannot know with certainty, the evidence implies that he was equally capable in both languages.
Josephus was able to read and write in several languages.
·        Obviously Greek as he wrote most of his books in it.
·        Aramaic, which was often called Syriac in his time.
·        Latin maybe. Even though he was associated with Vespasian, that would not necessitate knowing Latin. The Romans spoke Greek as it was the lingua franca of the day. Once Josephus was given a Latin name and adopted (as seen by his name change from Joseph ben Matityahu to Titus Flavius Josephus), he might have learned Latin as it was used inside parts of the Empire.
·        Hebrew. Archeology and historical literature have shown that Hebrew was a living language in use among the common people of the day as well as the educated and religious. For example, the author of the Letter of Aristeas writes "The Jews are supposed to use Syrian [Aramaic] language, but this is not so, for it is another form [of language]." This ancient scholar specifically denies that Aramaic and Hebrew are the same thing. And he is not referring to the languages using different scripts because they did not. Paleo Hebrew had been discontinued at this time and the Hebrews used the same Aramaic square script that the Aramaics did.
Also, parables in the Talmud and Mishnah are always in Hebrew. Even when the Talmudic text around them is Aramaic, the parable will be in Hebrew. Parables were sermon illustrations meant to be delivered to the common person.
Specifically from Josephus on his language, we read:
Josephus in Antiquities 10 1.2 says this: "When Rabshakeh had made this speech in the Hebrew tongue, for he was skillful in that language, Eliakim was afraid lest the multitude that heard him should be disturbed; so he desired him to speak in the Syrian tongue." This is an event from the Old Testament, but Josephus uses the same words to describe the language spoken by Rabshakeh as he does to describe his own language and that of his fellow Jews. He does not say that now they speak the Syrian tongue.
Josephus (War 5 6.3) points out that Jewish soldiers used a play on words that only makes sense in Hebrew. In 6.3, whenever a stone was on its way (being thrown from ballistea), the watchmen would shout "in their native language, 'The Son Cometh!'" While translators are confused by the Greek text, the answer makes sense in Hebrew. Whiston, the translator, admits how the words could be confused in Hebrew but not Aramaic. The watchmen would have shouted, in Hebrew, Ha-even ba’ah ("the stone is coming!"). However, because of urgency, the words would be clipped to ben ba ("son comes!").* They reduced the syllables due to time constraints. This pun is known in Hebrew and even appears in the NT (Matthew 3:9 and Luke 3:8) "God is able from these avanim [stones] to raise up banim [sons] to Abraham."
This wordplay is unambiguously Hebrew. In Aramaic, the phrase would be kefa ate ("the stone is coming") or the more literary avna ata. Neither sounds like bara ate ("the son is coming"). Another option for Aramaic would be to use the word aven, which is related to the Hebrew. However, aven would change the gender of the verb and still not work to make a pun on "son," bar.
*Similar to how modern soldiers reduce "Enemy fire incoming" to simply "Incoming!"
In Wars 5 9.2, Josephus tells how after he was captured, he was sent as an envoy to negotiate his people's surrender. "And being sensible that exhortations are frequently more effectual than arms, [Titus] persuaded them to surrender the city, now in a manner already taken, and thereby to save themselves, and sent Josephus to speak to them in their own language; for he imagined they might yield to the persuasion of a countryman of their own."
As Josephus just established through the use of the pun that the soldiers were speaking Hebrew, it stands to logical reason, that he too spoke Hebrew.
It should also be noted that Josephus refers to biblical words many times and explains what they mean in the Hebrew/Jewish tongue/language (i.e. Contra 2.2, Anti 1 1.1,2 (2x); Anti 5 2.2). At times, he explains these biblical words by saying "in our own tongue/language" (i.e. Wars 6 10.1, Antiquities 7 1.3). (There are many other examples of the above.) Logically, Josephus is drawing a connection between the language spoken by Jews in the Tanakh period and the common language spoken among his people of that time.
Language spoken by Jewish Priest Josephus: Aramaic as his first language and Greek as his secondary language
Language known by Jewish Priest Josephus - Aramaic, Greek, Hebrew (used for religious purposes only by Jewish Priests), and "possibly" some Latin.
Josephus' language was Aramaic. Although he spoke Greek as a secondary language, still he couldn't pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness. It is uncertain how much Latin Josephus knew since Josephus had difficulty pronouncing Greek with sufficient exactness. Since Josephus was a Jewish Priest from Judea, he used Old Hebrew for religious purposes. But he didn't know how to use it conversationally due to the fact that Old Hebrew was never used as a spoken language in first century Israel. Aside from Jewish Priests and Chief Scholars at Jerusalem, nobody knew anything about Hebrew. That's why Aramaic Old Testament (known as Peshitta Tanakh) was used in first century Israel. More infos about Peshitta Tanakh is available here -
This is just like Hindu religious scholars using Sanskrit in Kerala (South India). They use Sanskrit only for religious purposes. But the spoken language of Kerala is Malayalam and English as secondary language.
First century Jewish Historian and Jewish Priest Josephus wrote –
"I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek language, although I have so long accustomed myself to speak our own tongue, that I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness; for our nation does not encourage those that learn the languages of many nations, and so adorn their discourses with the smoothness of their periods; because they look upon this sort of accomplishment as common, not only to all sorts of free-men, but to as many of the servants as please to learn them. But they give him the testimony of being a wise man who is fully acquainted with our laws, and is able to interpret their meaning; on which account, as there have been many who have done their endeavors with great patience to obtain this learning, there have yet hardly been so many as two or three that have succeeded therein, who were immediately well rewarded for their pains." - Antiquities of Jews XX, XI
Jewish Wars (Book 1, Preface, Paragraph 1): "I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians. Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterwards, [am the author of this work]."
Notice the fact that he wrote Jewish Wars formerly in the language of his country and sent to Upper Barbarians. We read that Josephus translated into Greek for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans. Josephus wrote Jewish Wars in 2 languages. Josephus states one reason (below) why he translated Jewish Wars from his language into Greek.
Jewish Wars Book 1 Preface, Paragraph 2 - "I thought it therefore an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great consequence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these things, and to read either flatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and the Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means, knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended."
Notice the fact that Parthians, Babylonians, remotest Arabians, and those of his nation beyond Euphrates with Adiabeni knew accurately about Jewish Wars through Josephus. This easily concludes that Josephus first wrote Jewish Wars in his tongue "Aramaic" due to the fact that the language of Parthians, Babylonians, etc. during this time period was Aramaic.
In Acts 1:19, Field of Blood was known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem in their own language as Akeldama which is the transliteration of Aramaic words "Khqel Dama."
If I translate aramaic words "Khqel Dama" into Hebrew, then "Khqel Dama" will become "Sh'deh Hadam."
Through this, we can read that all inhabitants of Jerusalem spoke in their own language in first century AD which was Aramaic. If Hebrew was used as spoken language in first century Israel, then "Sh'deh Hadam" would have been mentioned along with "Khqel Dama" (a.k.a akel dama in Greek and English NT) in Acts 1:19.
Here is the link to Acts Chapter 1 (Hebrew translation from Greek)
You will see "s'deh Hadam" at the end of Acts 1:19. To match the words, see S'deh (Green color) and Field (Green Color). Hadam (in purple color) and Blood (in purple color).
There is no indication of a single person speaking Hebrew. If there was any possibility of Hebrew being spoken, then it should have started with Jerusalem (the center city of all Judaism). But let's also focus on the writings of Jewish Priest Josephus from first century AD.
Josephus calls Hebrew "Hebrew tongue" while he calls Aramaic as "our tongue" or "our language" or "the language of our country" or similar phrases like that. Aramaic (also known as Syriac) became the language of Jews during Babylon captivity (after 586 BC).
Daniel comment: knowing this, the word from Zephnayah makes sense:
(Zeph 3:9 [NRKJV])
For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of יהוה, to serve him with one consent.

Old Hebrew was preserved for religious purposes by Jewish Priests at Jerusalem. But it was never used as a spoken language in first century Israel. Here is the below information from Josephus.
Antiquities of Jews Book 1. Chapter 1. Paragraph 1 - "And that the seventh day was a rest, and a release from the labor of such operations; whence it is that we Celebrate a rest from our labors on that day, and call it the Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the Hebrew tongue."
Antiquities of Jews Book 5. Chapter 2. Paragraph 2 - "But the affairs of the Canaanites were at this thee in a flourishing condition, and they expected the Israelites with a great army at the city Bezek, having put the government into the hands of Adonibezek, which name denotes the Lord of Bezek, for Adoni in the Hebrew tongue signifies Lord. "
Antiquities of Jews Book 1, Chapter 1, Paragraph 2 - "Now a woman is called in the Hebrew tongue Issa; but the name of this woman was Eve, which signifies the mother of all living."
Antiquities of Jews Book 1, Chapter 1, Paragraph 1 - "This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is red, because he was formed out of red earth, compounded together; for of that kind is virgin and true earth."
1) Josephus' Antiquities of Jews 3:32 - Now the Hebrews call this food manna; for the particle man, in our language, is the asking of a question, What is this?
"Man" is Aramaic (Source - Book "Introduction to Syriac" written by Wheeler Thackston - Page 209). In Hebrew, Aramaic word "Man" will become "Mah" (Source -
If Hebrew was used as a spoken language along with Aramaic by both Josephus and first century Israel, then Josephus would have written "our languages" (plural) or "our tongues" (plural) instead of "our language" (singular) or "our tongue" (singular).
2) Antiquities of Jews Book VIII, Chapter 3, Paragraph 9 - “He also placed a partition around the temple, which in our tongue we call Gison, but it is called Thrigeos by the Greeks.”
3) Jewish Wars 1:3 - I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country..."
Notice the fact that only one language represented first century Israel which was Aramaic.
4) Jewish Wars Book 5, Chapter 4, Paragraph 2 - This new-built part of the city was called "Bezetha," in our language, which, if interpreted in the Grecian language, may be called "the New City."
Bezetha is Aramaic, because Aramaic places the definite article ("tha") at the end of the word, thus the 'tha' at the end of 'Bezetha' is the Aramaic definite article on a feminine noun in an emphatic state (Source - Book "Introduction to Syriac" by Wheeler Thackston, Page 44). This is the same thing with the Aramaic words in Bible like Gabbatha (John 19:13) and Talitha (Mark 5:41). The 'tha' at the end of both "Gabbatha" and "Talitha" is the Aramaic definite article on a feminine noun in an emphatic state.
Unlike Aramaic, the definite article of Hebrew ("Ha") is always at the beginning of the word. So if I loan Aramaic word "Bezetha" into Mishnaic Hebrew, then Aramaic word "bezetha" will become "Ha Bezeth" in Mishnaic Hebrew. Let me give you a famous example in Hebrew. HAARETZ newspaper in Israel. ARETZ means land in Hebrew. HAARETZ means "the land."
In first century AD, Jews also called their Aramaic "Hebrew", because that is the language of Hebrews. Jews are also called Hebrews, because they are the descendants of Abraham the Hebrew (Genesis 14:13, Philippians 3).
That is why NIV, ESV, and other bible versions write the words like "Gabbatha" "Golgotha", etc. as Aramaic instead of Hebrew.
John 19:13 (NIV): "When Pilate heard this, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judge's seat at a place known as the Stone Pavement (which in Aramaic is Gabbatha)".
Even today, Many Iraqi Jews call their Aramaic "Hebrew" ("Ibraith" in Aramaic), because it is the language of Hebrews. So when Jews said "Hebrew" in first century AD, they are referring to their Hebrew tongue which was Aramaic in first century AD. We call Deutsch "German", because it is the language of German People.
Also note the names in English Bible of New Testament - "Bar"tholomew, "Bar"abbas, "Bar"nabbas, "Bar"sabbas, "Bar" Jesus, Simon "Bar" Jonah, "Bar" Timaeus, etc.
Aramaic word Bar means Son. In Hebrew, Ben means Son ("Ben"jamin and Israeli Prime Minister David "Ben" Gurion). In Josephus' Jewish Wars, one of the top 3 leaders who fought against Romans was Simon Bar Giora. Bar Giora means "Son of a proselyte" in Aramaic.
Till 130 AD, Aramaic was the spoken language of Jews. From 131 AD through the rise of Bar Kokhba and Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD), the beginning process of reverting back to Hebrew occured. Although Aramaic was spoken by Jews from 131 AD to 135 AD, still they were encouraged to bring back Hebrew as their spoken language instead of Aramaic. After 135 AD, Jews continued to revert back to Hebrew. By the end of second century AD, Hebrew was a common spoken language among Jews.
According to Dead Sea Scrolls archaeologist, Yigael Yadin, Aramaic was the spoken language of Jews until Simon Bar Kokhba tried to restore Hebrew as the official language of Jews during Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD). Yigael Yadin noticed the shift from Aramaic to Hebrew during the time of Bar Kokhba revolt. In Book "Bar Kokhba: The rediscovery of the legendary hero of the last Jewish Revolt Against Imperial Rome" Yigael Yadin notes, "It is interesting that the earlier documents are written in Aramaic while the later ones are in Hebrew. Possibly the change was made by a special decree of Bar-Kokhba who wanted to restore Hebrew as the official language of the state" (page 181).
In Book "A Roadmap to the Heavens: An Anthropological Study of Hegemony among Priests, Sages, and Laymen (Judaism and Jewish Life)" by Sigalit Ben-Zion (Page 155), Yadin remarked: "it seems that this change came as a result of the order that was given by Bar Kokhba, who wanted to revive the Hebrew language and make it the official language of the state."
Many People ask why Josephus does mention this below.
Josephus in Antiquities 10 1.2 says this: "When Rabshakeh had made this speech in the Hebrew tongue, for he was skillful in that language, Eliakim was afraid lest the multitude that heard him should be disturbed; so he desired him to speak in the Syrian tongue."
Josephus was writing about 2 Kings Chapter 18. You may ask why is it that Josephus calling Aramaic "Syrian tongue" instead of saying "our own tongue or our own language."
Josephus was writing about the time period of first temple of Jerusalem when Old Hebrew was the language of Jews in Judea. Aramaic (a.k.a Syriac) wasn't the language of Jews during First temple period (till 587/586 BC). Only some Jewish scholars in Judea knew Aramaic during this time period. Aramaic became the language of Jews during Babylonian Captivity (only after the destruction of first temple in 587/586 BC).
It must also be noted that early manuscripts of New Testament are found in Greek (For Example, Codex Vaticanus) and in Aramaic (For Example, Syriac Manuscript no. 14,470). But earliest Hebrew NT manuscripts only date to 13th century AD. I also thought I should post this information (below).
AS you know, Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh is Aramaic Old Testament used in first century AD (source -
YA (Yodh Alap) is Aramaic form of Hebrew "YH" in Old Testament. In Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh, YA is written as MarYA (Master YA in English) for respect.
Here are some examples. I will put Hebrew on the left, Aramaic in the middle, and English on the right.
YH (Hebrew) - YA (Aramaic) - English
Yehochanan - Yochanan - John
Yehonathan - Yonathan - Jonathan
Yehoseph - Yoseph - Joseph
Yehoyachim - Yoyakim - Joachim
If Josephus' language was Hebrew, then his name would have been Yehosephus instead of Aramaic "Yosephus." And the name "Yehosephus" would have become "Jehosephus" in English instead of "Josephus."
When Bar Kokhba revived Hebrew, the names also "started" to convert from Aramaic to Hebrew during Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD). From this point onwards, Hebrew "YH" was used instead of Aramaic "YA."
For Example, Yoseph Bar Yoseph in Aramaic became Yehoseph Ben Yehoseph in Hebrew during Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD).
Here is the link where you can see Yehoseph Ben Yehoseph in Bar Kokhba letters.
In 1961, Yigael Yadin mentions that out of 15 Bar Kokhba letters from Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD) found at Nahal Hever, 9 of them are in Aramaic, 4 in Hebrew, and 2 in Greek [Source - The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep., 1961)].
You may ask what about Letter of Aristeas.
The author of the Letter of Aristeas writes "The Jews are supposed to use Syrian [Aramaic] language, but this is not so, for it is another form [of language]."
The letter's author alleges to be a courtier of Ptolemy II Philadelphus reigned from 281-246 BCE (Check this link for easy access -
Letter of Aristeas points out that the Jews are supposed "to use" Syrian language and "not speak."
Letter of Aristeas is actually referring to Syrian Script (Estrangela script) due to the fact that Aramaic was the spoken language of Jews during that period. But Jews didn't use Estrangela script in Judea and in Idumea. Notice the fact that letter of Aristeas is mentioning about "using." "Not speaking."
Even in first century AD, Aramaic in Judea and in Idumea was written in Dead Sea Scrolls Script (the script in Dead Sead Sea Scrolls and Bar Kokhba letters) while Lebanon, Syria, and Galilee used Estrangela script (Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh).
During Maccabean period (167 BC-), we read that the spoken language of Jews was Aramaic (Caphenatha in 1 Maccabees 12:37 of Septuagint). Not Hebrew. "tha" in Caphenatha is Aramaic definite article on a feminine noun in an emphatic state. According to Book "City of Jerusalem" by Colonel C. R Conder (Pg. 100), Caphenatha is Aramaic word for a "heap."
Also notice the fact that there are no Hebrew versions of Judith, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, and 4 Maccabees. Only Greek version (Septuagint) and Aramaic version (Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh in Codex Ambrosianus). If I loan Aramaic word (in Septuagint) "caphenatha" into Hebrew, then it will become "Ha Caphenah" or "Ha Caphenath."
It must be noted that Septuagint was also translated from Aramaic (a.k.a Syriac). Aside from Judith and books of Maccabees, let me also take the Book of Job.
Book "Targum and Testament Revisited: Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible" by Martin McNamara, Page 96 - In Septuagint manuscripts (Manuscripts- Aleph, A, B, and C), there is an epilogue in Book of Job which is introduced with the words: "houtos hermeneutai ek tes syriakes bibliou."
This means - "this was translated from the Syriac book."
Scholar William Norton provided this information (below) in his 1889 book “A translation, in English daily used, of the Peshito-Syriac text, and of the received Greek text, of Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, and 1 John: with an introduction on the Peshito-Syriac text, and the revised Greek text of 1881 (1889).”
Page ix-x (Introduction) – “Josephus is a very important witness in proof of the extent to which Syriac was known and used in the first century. He took part in the war against the Romans which led to the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 70. He was taken captive by them, and was well acquainted with all the events connected with the war. He wrote a history of it in Syriac; and states how great a multitude of people, living in different nations, from near the Caspian Sea to the bounds of Arabia, could read and understand what he had written in Syriac. He afterwards wrote the same history in Greek, that those who spoke Greek, and those of the Romans, and of any other nation who knew Greek, but did not know Syriac, might read it also.

Josephus' testimony on "Greek wasn't spoken in first century Israel" and "the extreme rarity in terms of a Hebrew knowing Greek" is also supported by Aramaic New Testament known as Aramaic Peshitta. Although Greek NT and the translations of Greek NT contradicts the testimony of Josephus by saying that there were Greeks who communicated with Jesus and Apostle Paul, still Aramaic NT supports the testimony of Josephus by saying that they were either Aramaean(s) or Pagan(s).

Below are some examples.

1. Mark 7:26 (NIV Translation) - "The woman was a Greek, born in Syrian Phoenicia. She begged Jesus to drive the demon out of her daughter." 

But in Mark 7:26 (Book "The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English", Page. 68) - "But she was a pagan woman from Phoenicia of Syria, and she was begging him to cast out the demon from her daughter."

2. Acts 20:21 (NIV) - "I have declared to both Jews and Greeks that they must turn to God in repentance and have faith in our Lord Jesus."

Acts 20:21 (Book "The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English", Page. 206) - "While I was testifying to the Jews and to the Aramaeans about returning to God and the faith in Our Lord Yeshua The Messiah."

3. Acts 19:17 (KJV) - "And this was known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus; and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified."

Acts 19:17 (Book "The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English", Page. 204) - "And this became known to all the Jews and Aramaeans dwelling in Ephesaus and great fear fell upon all of them, and the name of Our Lord Yeshua The Messiah was exalted."

It must be noted that Judean(s) is often mistranslated as Jew(s).

Here is also the actual truth about Judaism with quotes from Jewish rabbis -

Here is a link (below) about Jewish Hebrew Propaganda where Hebrew is deceptively promoted as the language of first century Israel when Dead Sea Scrolls Archaeologist Yigael Yadin points out that Aramaic was the language of Hebrews until Hebrew was revived by False Messiah Simon Bar Kokhba during Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135 AD).

For more evidences about Original Aramaic NT, I highly recommend this video and this document in the below links.

If anyone is interested in learning Aramaic (aka Syriac) spoken by Jesus Christ, first century Israel, and in Aramaic Peshitta, then I highly recommend the book "Introduction to Syriac" by Wheeler Thackston. The pdf file of this book was posted in the below link in zipx.

Paul Younan's Interlinear Translation (Aramaic Peshitta) - Gospel of Matthew 1 to Acts 16 -

Paul Younan Interlinear Translation of Aramaic Peshitta (Aramaic NT - Gospel of Matthew & Mark 1 to 11) organized in English is available here -

I thought I should share this information as well.

1 Maccabees in Aramaic version is available here -

Josephus' Judean Wars Book Six (in Aramaic) is available below. Josephus's Judean Wars Book Six explains about the fall of Jerusalem which occured in 70 AD.

Quotation: from Glenn David Bausher following. 

 Hope this was a help to see which language wasspoken in the day of Yehoshua!

mercredi 8 octobre 2014


Sukkot – The feast of Tabernacles
Vaykra 22 :26-23 :44
Z’kharaYah 14, 1 M’lakhim (King) 8:2-21
Sh’mot (Ex.)33:12-34:26, Badmidbar (Numb.)29:26-30:1
Hoshana Rabba
Badmidbar (Numb.) 29:26-34
Sh’mini Atzeret. D’varim 14:22-16:17, Yechezk’El (Eze) 38:8-39:16,
1 M’lakhim(King) 8:54-66, Badmidbar (Numb) 29:35-30:1
Daniel Ben Ya'acov Ysrael

The feast of Succoth mark the last step in the redemption of Yehowah’s people, in the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar. This time will be a time of great joy when all the saints of Yehowah will be gathered from the four winds.

Mat 24:31 “And He shall send His messengers with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together His chosen ones from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.
The Torah came first and is directly from the mouth of Elohim. The Torah has authority over all subsequent scriptures. Anything coming after must not contradict it.
-        ●The Torah also called “Law” in English is the truth:
Psa 119:142 Your righteousness is forever; and Your Torah is truth.
Psa 119:151 You are near, O יהוה, And all Your commands are truth.
Psa 119:160 The sum of Your word is truth, And all Your righteous right-rulings are forever.
            ●The word gives light into our life
Psa 119:130 the opening up of Your words gives light, giving understanding to the simple.
            ●Yehoshua says that the Word is true
Joh 17:17 “Set them apart in Your truth – Your Word is truth.
Shaul / Paul praise the Bereans (Syrian Yehudin) in
Act 17:10 and the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto Berea: who coming thither went into the synagogue of the Jews.
Act 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.
for verifying his teaching against the TaNaHk, which gives proof of its authority in determining the truth also:
2nd Timothy 3:15-17 and that from a babe you have known the Set-apart Scriptures (TaNaHk), which are able to make you wise for salvation through belief in Messiah יהושע.
2Ti 3:16 All Scripture (TanHak)  is breathed by Elohim and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for setting straight, for instruction in righteousness,
2Ti 3:17 that the man of Elohim might be fitted, equipped for every good work.

D’varim 16

Deu 16:13 “Perform the Festival of Booths for seven days after the ingathering from your threshing-floor and from your winepress,
Here it is clearly stipulated that the Feast comes after the ingathering of the fall harvest. This once again shows that it cannot be before the fall equinox (tekufah) which occurs September 22-23 in the pagan calendar.
Deu 16:14 and you shall rejoice in your festival, you and your son and your daughter, and your male servant and your female servant, and the Lĕwite, and the stranger and the fatherless and the widow who are within your gates.
The rejoicing is due to the blessing in the harvest!
Deu 16:15For seven days you shall observe a festival to יהוה your Elohim in the place which יהוה chooses (read: 1 King 11:36), because יהוה your Elohim does bless you in all your increase and in all the work of your hands, and you shall be only rejoicing!
Yochanan speaks also from the winepress, in another way:
Rev 14:18 And another messenger came out from the altar, having authority over the fire, and he cried with a loud cry to him having the sharp sickle, saying, “Send your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, because her grapes are ripe.”
Rev 14:19 and the messenger thrust his sickle into the earth and gathered the vine of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of Elohim.
Rev 14:20 And the winepress was trodden outside the city, and blood came out of the winepress, up to the bridles of the horses, for about three hundred kilometres.
I can really imagine that if another season for this punishment was chosen, Yochanan/John, would have not spoken of “winepress and grapes”. This must refer to the period of the 7th month.
Not because of the harvest, much more because of the deeper meaning “sod”.

                 ● The joy of tabernacles. Succoth is the most joyous of all Yehowah’s feast and the one that all nations of the world will be commanded to go up to Yerushalayim to celebrate during the Messiah’s reign:
Zec 14:16 And it shall be that all who are left from all the gentiles (Goyim/nations) which came up against Yerushalayim (one group of people), shall go up from year to year to bow themselves to the Sovereign, יהוה of hosts, and to observe the Festival of Booths.
Zec 14:17 And it shall be, that if anyone of the clans of the earth does not come up to Yerushalayim to bow himself to the Sovereign, יהוה of hosts, on them there is to be no rain.
Zec 14:18 And if the clan of Mitsrayim (another group) does not come up and enter in, then there is no rain. On them is the plagues with which יהוה plagues the gentiles (Goyim/nations) that do not come up to observe the Festival of Booths.
Zec 14:19 This is the punishment of Mitsrayim (1) and the punishment of all the gentiles (2) (nations) that do not come up to observe the Festival of Booths.

Succoth is associated both with the messianic age and the Olam Haba, eternal life.
Succoth is called the feast of Living water, based on this verse from: 
ZechariYahu:14:8 And in that day it shall be that living waters flow from Yerushalayim1, half of them toward the eastern sea and half of them toward the western sea, in summer as well as in winter.
in the context of verses 16-21.
Succoth related messianic references in the Brit Chadasha: Matt. 17, we are told Kefa offering to build “booth” (Succoth in Hebrew) when Yehoshua stand with Moshe and EliYahu. We also see people laying out palm branches (Hebrew lulav) before Yehoshua on his entry into Yerushalayim (coronation of the King).
Mat 21:6  And the disciples went, and did as Yehoshua commanded them,
Mat 21:7  And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon.
Mat 21:8  And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way.
Mat 21:9  And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna (hoshia Na/save us) to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of YHWH; Hosanna (hoshia na/save us) in the highest.

The book of Revelation makes also allusion to Succoth:
Rev 7:9 After this I looked and saw a great crowd which no one was able to count, out of all nations and tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, and palm branches in their hands,
Rev 7:17 because the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shall shepherd them and lead them to fountains of waters of life. And Elohim shall wipe away every tear from their eyes.”

Succoth is celebrated for seven days. However in Vaiyqra 23:26 it is mentioned: This extra day is called in Hebrew “Shemini Atzeret" (the eight conclusion), a picture of eternity. It represents the Olam Haba (world to come) the time after the Millenium reign of Messiah.
At the end of the seven days of the Succoth feast, the holiday of Shimcha Torah (joy of the Torah) takes places, when the last portion of the Torah is read.
Now concerning the eight day, majority of people are confused because they do not know the true calendar. If we look carefully according to the Luni-solar calendar, we will see that Succoth start on a regular Shabbat so we have:
Shabbat + day 1, day 2 day 3, day 4, Day 5, day, 6, equal 7days the Eight day be again a Shabbat according to:
Lev 23:33 And YHWH spoke unto Moses, saying,
Lev 23:34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, the fifteenth day (Shabbat) of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto YHWH.
Lev 23:35 On the first day shall be a holy convocation (Shabbat): ye shall do no servile work therein.
Lev 23:36 Seven days (including the Shabbat) ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto YHWH: on the eighth day (next Shabbat) shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto YHWH: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.
Lev 23:37  These are the feasts of YHWH, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto YHWH, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, everything upon his day:
From this text it is clear that the Feast of Succoth goes for  seven days and the following day is the regular Shabbat, included in the Feast as a shadow of the “olam haba” (eternal life)
Neh 8:14 and they found written in the Torah which YHWH had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month:
Neh 8:15  And that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine branches, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.
Neh 8:16  So the people went forth, and brought them, and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of Elohim, and in the street of the water gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim.
Neh 8:17  And all the congregation of them that were come again out of the captivity made booths, and sat under the booths: for since the days of Yehoshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness
Neh 8:18 Also day by day, from the first day (shabbat unto the last day, he read in the book of the law of Elohim. And they kept the feast seven days; and on the eighth day (Shabbat) was a solemn assembly, according unto the manner.

Deut.16: 13 Thou shalt observe the feast of tabernacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered in thy corn and thy wine:

We can read in the book of Yochanan:
Joh 7:2 and the festival of the Yehuḏim was near, the Festival of Booths (Succoth).
Joh 7:10 But when His brothers had gone up to the festival, then He also went up, not openly, but as it were in secret.
Joh 7:14 and about the middle of the festival יהושע went up into the Set-apart Place, and He was teaching.
Joh 7:37 and on the last day (Shimcha Torah), the great day of the festival, יהושע stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to Me, and let him who believes in Me drink.
Succoth is closely linked to the gentiles (Goyim/nations) salvation as seen in the sacrifice of the seventy bulls as written in:

The word “Sheminy” as presented by some means simply “eight” (which is the regular Shabbat):
sheminy means simply "eight"

and is also found in/
Zech.1:1 In the eighth (SHEMINY) month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of YHWH unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,……..

“Shemeny atzereth” means: Solemn assembly on the eight day which is the Shabbat.
H6116 עֲצָרָה עֲצֶרֶת `atsarah (ats-aw-raw') (or matsereth {ats-eh'-reth}) n-f.
1. an assembly, especially on a festival or holiday

Num 29:12 ‘And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month (First day of the Feast) you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work. And you shall observe a festival to יהוה seven days,
Num 29:13 and you shall bring near a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, a sweet fragrance to יהוה: thirteen young bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones they are,
Num 29:14 and their grain offering: fine flour mixed with oil, three-tenths of an ĕphah for each of the thirteen bulls, two-tenths for each of the two rams,
Num 29:15 and one-tenth for each of the fourteen lambs,
Num 29:16 and one male goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its grain offering, and its drink offering.
Num 29:17 ‘Then on the second day: twelve young bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,
Num 29:18 and their grain offering and their drink offerings for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, by their number, according to the right-ruling,
Num 29:19 and one male goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering with its grain offering, and their drink offerings.
Num 29:20 ‘And on the third day eleven bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,
Num 29:21 and their grain offering and their drink offerings for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, by their number, according to the right-ruling,
Num 29:22 and one goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its grain offering, and its drink offering.
Num 29:23 ‘Then on the fourth day: ten bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,
Num 29:24 and their grain offering and their drink offerings for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, by their number, according to the right-ruling,
Num 29:25 and one male goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its grain offering, and its drink offering.
Num 29:26 ‘Then on the fifth day: nine bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,
Num 29:27 and their grain offering and their drink offerings for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, by their number, according to the right-ruling,
Num 29:28 and one goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its grain offering, and its drink offering.
Num 29:29 ‘Then on the sixth day: eight bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,
Num 29:30 and their grain offering and their drink offerings for the bulls, for the rams, and for the lambs, by their number, according to the right-ruling,
Num 29:31 and one goat as a sin offering, besides the continual burnt offering, its grain offering, and its drink offering.
Num 29:32Then on the seventh day: seven bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs a year old, perfect ones,

The sum of all bulls is: Seventy (70)! In the Hebrew gematria it is interesting to see the repartition of the bulls’ sacrifices
The First day thirteen bulls are sacrificed!

Thirteen is the number for rebellion according to B’reshit 14:4
Gen 14:4 Twelve years they served Keḏorlaʽomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.
The last day of the sacrifices during the feast, seven bulls are sacrificed. Seven is the number for divine perfection on earth. For Yehowah rested on the seventh day! We can see more concerning the number in my midrash on “The Torah and the numbers”
The sacrifices of the seventy bulls is linked to the seventy nations descendant of Noah trough his sons, Ham, Japthet and Shem.(B’reshit chapter 10).
Zecha.14 states that during the millennium, gentiles (goyim in Hebrew, meaning nations) will come to Yerushalayim during Succoth and those who will not come will be punished (Zech. 14:9-19).

Hints of Gentiles (Goy, nations) salvation are found throughout the Tanak:
B’reshit/Gensis: 12;3, 18:14, 22:18, 26:4
Gen 12:3 “And I shall bless those who bless you, and curse him who curses you. And in you all the clans (Goyim, nations) of the earth shall be blessed.”
Gen 18:14 “Is any matter too hard for יהוה? At the appointed time I am going to return to you, according to the time of life, and Sarah is to have a son.”
Gen 22:18 “And in your seed all the nations (Goyim) of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.”
26:4 “And I shall increase your seed like the stars of the heavens, and I shall give all these lands to your seed. And in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed,
Isa 45:23 “I have sworn by Myself, a word has gone out of My mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, so that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue swear.
Isa 54:1  “Sing, O barren one, you who did not bear! Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, you who have not been in labour! For the children of the deserted one are more than the children of the married woman,” said יהוה. (They are The House of Israel and the House of Yehudah), as we saw Leah the first wife of Ya’acov been fruitful and Rah’el been barren until Yehowah open her womb. Later the children of Rachel, Yosef with his children Manasseh and Ephraim became the fullness of the nations (melo HaGoyim in Hebrew), known as the “House of Israel” and Benjamin Yosef’s brother.
Gen 29:31 And יהוה saw that Lĕ’ah was unloved, and He opened her womb, but Raḥĕl was barren.
Gen 30:19 and Lĕ’ah conceived again and bore Yaʽaqoḇ a sixth son.
Gen 30:22 and Elohim remembered Raḥĕl, and Elohim listened to her and opened her womb.
Gen 30:23 and she conceived, and bore a son, and said, “Elohim has taken away my reproach.”
Gen 30:24 so she called his name Yosĕph, and said, “יהוה has added to me another son.”

Keil and Delitzsch give following explanation on Yeshayahu 54:1  The words are addressed to Jerusalem, which was a counterpart of Sarah in her barrenness at first, and her fruitfulness afterwards (Isa_41:1-3). She is not תֵלֵד לֹא עֲקָרָה (Job_24:21), but יָלָדָה לֹא עֲקָרָה (Jdg_13:2); not indeed that she had never had any children, but during her captivity and exile she had been robbed of her children, and as a holy city had given birth to no more (Isa_49:21). She was shōmēmâh, rendered solitary (2Sa_13:20; the allusion is to her depopulation as a city), whereas formerly she was בְּעוּלָה, i.e., enjoyed the fellowship of Jehovah her husband (ba‛al). But this condition would not last (for Jehovah had not given her a divorce): she was therefore to exult and shout, since the number of children which she would now have, as one desolate and solitary, would be greater than the number of those which she had as a married wife.

Isa 54:2 “Enlarge the place of your tent, and let them stretch out the curtains of your dwellings, spare not. Lengthen your cords, and strengthen your stakes.
Isa 54:3 “For you shall break forth to the right and to the left, and your seed inherit the nations, and make the deserted cities inhabited.
The seed is Messiah as it is written:
Psa 2:7 “I inscribe for a law: יהוה has said to Me, ‘You are My Son, Today I have brought You forth.
Psa 2:8 ‘Ask of Me, and I make the gentiles (Goyim) Your inheritance, And the ends of the earth Your possession.
Isa 49:6 and He says, “Shall it be a small matter for You to be My Servant to raise up the tribes of Yaʽaqoḇ, and to bring back the preserved ones of Yisra’ĕl? And I shall give You as a light( Yehoshua) to the gentiles(Goyim), to be My salvation (יְשׁוּעָה yshuwahti) to the ends of the earth!”
Isa 60:1  “Arise, shine, for your light( Yehoshua)  has come! And the esteem of יהוה has risen upon you.
Isa 60:2 “For look, darkness covers the earth, and thick darkness the peoples. But יהוה arises over you, and His esteem is seen upon you.
Isa 60:3 “And the gentiles shall come to your light (Yehoshua)1, and sovereigns to the brightness of your rising.
Amo 9:11 “In that day I shall raise up the booth of Dawiḏ (12 tribes) which has fallen down. And I shall repair its breaches and raises up its ruins. And I shall build it as in the days of old,

Succoth Additional from Eddie Chemney

From Yom Kippur to Succoth, not coincidently, the same time period marks the beginning of the construction of Elohim’s Succoth, the Miskhan, the sanctuary in the wilderness
Exo 25:8 “And they shall make Me a Set-apart Place (Mishkan, Tabernacle), and I shall dwell in their midst.
Exo 25:9 “According to all that I show you – the pattern of the Dwelling Place and the pattern of all its furnishings – make it exactly so.
Let us compare with the words from Yochanan:
Rev.21:1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. 2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from YHWH out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of YHWH is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and YHWH himself shall be with them, and be their Elohim.
When Moshe came down from Mount Sinai with the second set of tablets and according to tradition descended on Yom Kippur, it was seen as a sign of Elohim’s forgiveness of Israel for the sin of the golden calf and as a symbol of the lasting covenant between Elohim and Israel
Exo 24:12 And יהוה said to Mosheh, “Come up to Me on the mountain and be there, while I give you tablets of stone, and the Torah and the command which I have written, to teach them.”
Exo 24:13 And Mosheh arose with his assistant Yehoshua, and Mosheh went up to the mountain of Elohim.
Exo 24:14 And he said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we come back to you. And see, Aharon and Ḥur are with you. Whoever has matters, let him go to them.”
Exo 24:15 And Mosheh went up into the mountain, and a cloud covered the mountain.
Exo 24:16 And the esteem of יהוה dwelt on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days. And on the seventh day He called to Mosheh out of the midst of the cloud.
Exo 24:17 And the appearance of the esteem of יהוה was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain, before the eyes of the children of Yisra’ĕl.
Exo 24:18 And Mosheh went into the midst of the cloud and went up into the mountain. And it came to be that Mosheh was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

Exo 34:1 and יהוה said to Mosheh, “Cut two tablets of stone like the first ones, and I shall write on these tablets the Words that were on the first tablets which you broke.
Exo 34:2 “and be ready in the morning. Then you shall come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself to Me there on the top of the mountain.
Exo 34:27 and יהוה said to Mosheh, “Write these Words, for according to the mouth of these Words I have made a covenant with you and with Yisra’ĕl.”
Exo 34:28 and he was there with יהוה forty days and forty nights. He did not eat bread and he did not drink water. And He wrote on the tablets the Words of the covenant, the Ten Words.

Following day, Moshe relayed Elohim’s instruction for building the “Mishkan”, a dwelling place. Material for this portable structure was collected during the days before Succoth and work was started on it. (Sh’mot chapter 35, 36:1-7).
Why was the Mishkan built? The Torah says: “let them make Me a sanctuary that I may dwell among them. Sh’mot 25:8, to establish the relationship between Elohim and Israel. Elohim would dwell among His people.
This physical tabernacle was given by Elohim to teach and instruct us that he desires to live and dwell with His people, by means of the Ruach HaQodesh.
1Co 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the Dwelling Place (Temple) of the Set-apart Spirit (Ruach HaQodesh) who is in you, which you have from Elohim, and you are not your own?

            ●Succoth names:
                        The season of our joy
                        The festival of ingathering
                        The feats of the nations
                        The Festival of dedication
                        The Festival of light

Succoth called the season of our joy. One reason of joy is that after the season of repentance and the redemption of Yom Kippur, came the joy of walking with Elohim.
Elohim did promised Moshe of His plan in:
Exo 6:6 “Say, therefore, to the children of Yisra’ĕl, ‘I am יהוה, and I shall bring you out from under the burdens of the Mitsrites, and shall deliver you from their enslaving, and shall redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments,
Exo 6:7 and shall take you as My people; and I shall be your Elohim. And you shall know that I am יהוה your Elohim who is bringing you out from under the burdens of the Mitsrites.

1●Delivrance from bondage (mitsrites)
2●Sanctification by walking in the Torah (wilderness)
3●Redemption and millennium (The Millenium)
4●Completion in the world to come (Olam Haba)

Also four exiles
4●Rome (Edom)

Historically Succoth commemorates the day in the wilderness of Sinai; after coming out of Mitzrayim (Egypt). According the natural laws, the children of Israel should have perished, but were instead divinely protected by Elohim.
Succoth or booth, symbolizes man’s need to depend upon Elohim for his provision of food, water and shelter.
The booth is a physical body which is a temporary dwelling place for our soul and spirit
1Co 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the Dwelling Place (Temple) of the Set-apart Spirit (Ruach HaQodesh)who is in you, which you have from Elohim, and you are not your own?
1Co 6:20 For you were bought with a price, therefore esteem Elohim in your body and in your spirit (Ruach),1 which are of Elohim. Footnote: 1See 7:23, 1 Peter 1:18-19.
2Pe 1:14 knowing that the putting off of my tent (booth, tabernacle) is soon, even as our Master יהושע Messiah made clear to me.
We need the washing that the word of Elohim brings to our lives

Eph 5:26 in order to set it apart and cleanse it with the washing of water by the Word,
and the shelter of Elohim if se seek him first
Mat 6:31 “Do not worry then, saying, ‘What shall we eat?’ or ‘What shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear?’
Mat 6:32 “For all these the gentiles (Goy, nations) seek for. And your heavenly Father knows that you need all these.
Mat 6:33But seek first the reign of Elohim, and His righteousness, and all these matters shall be added to you.

The divine order declares that after judgment (Yom Kippur), comes Succoth
Isa 4:4 When יהוה has washed away the filth of the daughters of Tsiyon, and rinsed away the blood of Yerushalayim from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning,
Isa 4:5 then יהוה shall create above every dwelling place of Mount Tsiyon, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night, for over all the esteem shall be a covering,
Isa 4:6 and a booth (sukkah) for shade in the daytime from the heat, for a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain.

The commandment to rejoice at this time is given in:
Deu 16:13 “Perform the Festival of Booths for seven days after the ingathering from your threshing-floor and from your winepress,
Deu 16:14 and you shall rejoice in your festival, you and your son and your daughter, and your male servant and your female servant, and the Lĕwite, and the stranger and the fatherless and the widow who are within your gates.
Deu 16:15 “For seven days you shall observe a festival to יהוה your Elohim in the place which יהוה chooses, because יהוה your Elohim does bless you in all your increase and in all the work of your hands, and you shall be only rejoicing!

Daniel added: We can see the clear connection between rejoicing in the natural and the spiritual. The children of Israel (carnal man) were to rejoice “after the ingathering from the threshing floor and from the winepress”
This mean the harvest was abundant great blessing because of obedience to Yehowah’s Torah. This foreshadows the ingathering of the last harvest when Messiah will come to judge the nations. The Believers will rejoice because for those who are in Messiah this will be the time of “ingathering”.
The First harvest was after Yehoshua’s departure to the Father at Shavuot/Pentecost during the time of the Apostles. They were called “First Fruits” which is represented by the harvest of the wheat.
Today our rejoicing is the rehearsal for what is to come. We should always remember that the end is like the beginning. (Eccl. 1:9)

The scriptures tell us that the “Word” became flesh: Yochanan 1:14.
Yehowah presence was demonstrated by Yehoshua during his first coming.
Yeshayahu 4:2, speaks of the fruits of the earth and those who have escaped. Succoth is known as the festival of ingathering and the fruit harvest.
Isa 4:2 In that day the Branch (Yehoshua) of יהוה shall be splendid and esteemed. And the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for the escaped ones1 of Yisra’ĕl.

In Revelation 7:9-17 we can see those who have come through the great tribulation period, and who become part of Elohim’s people during this time period.
We have here a picture of the apostate “church” repenting during the tribulation.
Rev. 7:15  they “dwell” with them.
The Greek word is “skenos”  tabernacle, booth, shelter, or covering.
This word is used in Yochanan 1:14, speaking of Yehoshua dwelling among us at his first coming.
Notice, the protection provided in Rev. 7:16 correspond to Yeshayahu 4:5-6
Rev 7:16 “They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more, neither shall the sun strike them, nor any heat,
Rev 21:4And Elohim shall wipe away every tear from their eyes, and there shall be no more death, nor mourning, nor crying. And there shall be no more pain, for the former matters have passed away.”
Isa 4:5 then יהוה shall create above every dwelling place of Mount Tsiyon, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night, for over all the esteem shall be a covering,
Isa 4:6 and a booth (succah singular from succoth) for shade in the daytime from the heat, for a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain.

And the fountain of living water in Revelation 7:17 and 21:4 in YeshaYahu 4:3. Those who are called Qadosh, Holy, are the same people as in Zech. 14:20.

The Hebrew word for tabernacle is Sukkah. It means: booth, a pavilion or tent. The Greek word is “skene” which has the same meaning as the Greek word “skaynos”.
let’s look how it is used in the Brit Chadasha.
            - Yehoshua tabernacled (Sukkah) among us (Yochanan 1:14)
            - Kefa spoke about his body been a tent (booth) 2nd Kefa 1:13-14
- The Apostle Sha'ul told us that earthly bodies are earthly house or tabernacle (2nd Cor.5:1-5)
- The tabernacle of Moshe was a tent of habitation (Acts 7:14, heb.9:2-8)
- Abraham, Isaac, Ya’acov lived in tabernacles, tents (Heb.11:8-9);
- The tabernacle of David was a tent of dwelling place (Acts 15:16, Amos 9:11)
- Yehoshua entered the temple on the feast of Sukkoth (Yochanan 7:2, 27-29).
- The scriptures speaks of a heavenly tabernacle (heb.8:1-2, Rev.13:6, 15:5) this tabernacle will come to earth (Rev. 21:1-3)
- Yehoshua the true tabernacle of Elohim (Heb. 9:11)

Prophetically the tabernacle points toward the future, the messianic age and the world to come (Olam Haba) when Yehowah will dwell among His people.
The Sukkah is supposed to remind us that we are but stranger and pilgrims on the earth.
Heb. 11:8-10, 13-16, B’reshit 23:3-4, 47:9, 1st Chronicle 29:10,15, Psalm 39:12, 119:19, 1st Kefa 1:17, 2:11

At the coming of Messiah we will receive a new and heavenly body, a glorified body: 1st Cor. 15:39-44, 51-57, 1st Tessal. 4:15-18
2Co 5:1  For we know that if the tent of our earthly house, is destroyed, we have a building from Elohim, a house not made with hands, everlasting in the heavens.
2Co 5:2  For indeed in this we groan, longing to put on our dwelling which is from heaven,
2Co 5:3  so that, having put it on, we shall not be found naked.
Sukkoth as like the other feast has an agricultural element; which is the final ingathering of harvest products before the coming winter. It is called in Hebrew “Hag HaAsif” the feast of ingathering at the end of the year.
Exo 23:16 and the Festival of the Harvest, the first-fruits of your labours which you have sown in the field; and the Festival of the Ingathering (chag Hasiyph) at the outgoing of the year (tekufah/Equinox), when you have gathered in the fruit of your labours from the field.
Succoth is the time when the produce of the field, nuts and vineyard are harvested, and brought to the warehouse or storeroom for grain
Threshing floor, wine and olive presses are full to capacity. Weeks and months of toil and sweat put into the soil have been rewarded. The farmers feel happy (Malachi 3:10-11) and rejoice.
-        Hachnasat Orechim. The Mitzvah (commandment) of hospitality. There is a tradition in Judaism of inviting (ushpizin), symbolic guest each day to join the family in the sukkah. These honorary guests are Abraham, Isaac, Ya’acov, Yosĕph, Moshe, Aaron, and David. One is invited each day.
-        Halacha: Succoth is called the feast of ingathering, the end of the age (Olam Azeh)
Mat 13:39 and the enemy who sowed them is the devil. And the harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are the messengers.
The problem in this view is that Yehoshua do not speak about wine or fruits but of wheat and tares:
Mat 13:38 The field is the world; the good seed (wheat) are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one;
Mat 13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.
Mat 13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world (age).
 Mat 13:24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:
Mat 13:25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat (good seed), and went his way.

Another Harvest:

Rev 14:15 And another messenger came out of the Dwelling Place, crying with a loud voice to the One sitting on the cloud, “Send Your sickle and reap, because the hour has come for You to reap, because the harvest of the earth is ripe.” (here it is about the vengeance of Yehowah’s wrath)
Joe 3:13 “Put in the sickle, for the harvest has grown ripe. Come, go down, for the winepress is filled, the vats overflow, for their evil is great.”

The harvest refers to people have accepted Messiah and live.
Mat 9:35 And יהושע went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their congregations, and proclaiming the Good News of the reign, and healing every disease and every bodily weakness among the people.
Mat 9:36 and having seen the crowds, He was moved with compassion for them, because they were weary and scattered, as sheep having no shepherd.
Mat 9:37 Then He said to His taught ones (talmidin, disciples), “The harvest truly is great, but the workers are few.
Mat 9:38 “Pray then that the Master of the harvest would send out workers to His harvest.”

Luk 10:1  And after this the Master appointed seventy others, and sent them two by two ahead of Him into every city and place where He Himself was about to go.
Luk 10:2 Then He said to them, “The harvest indeed is great, but the workers are few, therefore pray the Master of the harvest to send out workers into His harvest.
Joh 4:35 “Do you not say, ‘There are still four months, and the harvest (comes’? See, I say to you, lift up your eyes and see the fields, for they are white for harvest* – already!
*The colour (white) indicate that it is about wheat, this is the colour of a wheat field fully ripe just before the harvest.
Joh 4:36 “He who is reaping receives a reward, and gathers fruit for everlasting life, so that both he who is sowing and he who is reaping rejoice together.
Joh 4:37 “For in this the word is true, ‘One sows and another reaps.’
Joh 4:38 “I sent you to reap that for which you have not laboured. Others have laboured ( Daniel added: The prophets, plural), and you have entered into their(plural) labours.”
The other Harvest:
Rev 14:14 And I looked and saw a white cloud, and sitting on the cloud was One like the Son of Aḏam, having on His head a golden crown, and in His hand a sharp sickle.
Rev 14:15 And another messenger came out of the Dwelling Place, crying with a loud voice to the One sitting on the cloud, “Send Your sickle and reap, because the hour has come for You to reap, because the harvest of the earth is ripe.”
Rev 14:16 and the One sitting on the cloud thrust in His sickle on the earth, and the earth was reaped.
Rev 14:17 and another messenger came out of the Dwelling Place which is in the heaven, and he too held a sharp sickle.
Rev 14:18 And another messenger came out from the altar, having authority over the fire, and he cried with a loud cry to him having the sharp sickle, saying, “Send your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, because her grapes* are ripe.”
* The time of the grapes gathering is before Sukkoth starting in July (see table below).
Daniel added: We see that there are two different actions between verses 14-16 and the verse 17-18. They are two groups of people who are “harvested”. The one for everlasting life ‘verses14-16, the other for the wrath of Elohim verses17-18.
Elohim is gathering both Yehudah and Ephraim and those of the nations who accept Messiah and have become partaker of the household of Elohim (Ephesians  2:19)
Most of people on the earth have not accepted Messiah as saviour and are in the valley of decision
Joe 3:13Put in the sickle, for the harvest has grown ripe. Come, go down, for the winepress is filled, the vats overflow, for their evil is great.”
Joe 3:14 Crowds, crowds in the valley of decision! For the day of יהוה is near in the valley of decision.

Feast of dedication Sh’lomo dedicated the Temple (Beit HaMikdash) during Succoth (1st King 3).

Feast of nations. Succoth will be celebrated during the millennium, the messianic age: Zechar. 14:16-18. Elohim promised in B’reshit 12:3 that all families of the earth should be blessed through Abraham’s seed. From Abraham, Elohim would raise people, Israel to be a blessing to the nations. That promise was fulfilled through Yehoshua as Messiah as it is stated in Galatians
Gal 3:14 in order that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the nations in Messiah יהושע, to receive the promise of the Spirit through belief.
Gal 3:16 But the promises were spoken to Abraham, and to his Seed. He does not say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but as of one, “And to your Seed,” who is Messiah.
Gal 3:19 Why, then, the Torah? It was added because of transgressions, until the Seed should come to whom the promise was made. And it was ordained through messengers in the hand of a mediator.
The greatest evangelism in history will be by the 144 000 anointed ones from the tribes of Israel proclaiming the gospel (bazaar) of the Kingdom of heaven.
Rev 14:1  And I looked and saw a Lamb standing on Mount Tsiyon, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s Name1 written upon their foreheads. Footnote: 1Some texts read: having His Name and His Father’s Name.
Rev 14:2 and I heard a voice out of the heaven, like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of loud thunder, and I heard the sound of harpists playing their harps.
Rev 14:3 and they sang a renewed song before the throne, and before the four living creatures, and the elders. And no one was able to learn that song except the hundred and forty-four thousand who were redeemed from the earth.(Daniel added: This song is the Torah)
Rev 14:4 they are those who were not defiled with women, for they are maidens (Daniel: virgin, Shaul speaking to the believers in Corinth read:
:2Co 11:2 For I am jealous for you with a jealousy according to Elohim. For I gave you in marriage to one husband  to present you as an innocent maiden/virgin (bethulah) to Messiah. This was coming from
 Vaiyqra Lev 21:10 ‘And the high priest (Yehoshua) among his brothers, on whose head the anointing oil was poured and who is ordained to wear the garments………
Lev 21:13 and he shall take a wife in her virginity.
Rev.14:4….They are those following the Lamb wherever He leads them on. They were redeemed from among men, being first-fruits to Elohim and to the Lamb.
Rev 14:5 and in their mouth was found no falsehood, for they are blameless before the throne of Elohim.
Rev 14:6 and I saw another messenger flying in mid-heaven, holding the everlasting Good News to announce to those dwelling on the earth, even to every nation and tribe and tongue and people,
Rev 14:7 saying with a loud voice, “Fear Elohim and give esteem (Glory) to Him, because the hour of His judgment (Yom Kippur) has come. And worship Him who made the heaven and the earth, and sea, and fountains of water.” 
Another view on the 70 Bullocks:
 A mysterious pattern is given in Badmidbar 29:12-35 with the sacrifices of the seventy bullocks during the week of Succoth.
Seventy Bullocks were offered on the altar. The connection of the seventy bullocks to the seventy nations is taken from D’varim, 32:8, B’reshit 46:27 and Sh’mot 1:1-5.
Once again the association of the nations of the world to Succoth is found in Zechar. 14:16-19.
Another fascinating thing about the sacrifices during Succoth is that the offerings when grouped or counted, their number always remains divisible by seven.
During the week they are 182 sacrifices (70 bullocks, 14 rams, 98 lambs,). 182 divided by 7 is 26.
Rabbi Ed Needle gives this detail:
The gematria for the Tetragramaton YHWH is 26. yod 10, He 5, vav 6, He 5, equal: 26
The Gematria for Ya’acov is 182.
The number 182 is equal to 26 x 7.
The number 7 indicate divine perfection on earth (B’reshit 2:1-2) It is the final “tikkun”, restoration of all things as it is written in Acts
Act 3:20 and that He sends יהושע Messiah, pre-appointed for you,
Act 3:21 whom heaven needs to receive until the times of restoration of all matters, of which Elohim spoke through the mouth of all His set-apart prophets since of old.

Hoshana Rabbah the Eight day
The Great salvation
It is the eight day of the feast of the tabernacles. It has some spiritual rituals and custom, that makes the day more like a full festival day.
Lev 23:36 ‘For seven days you bring an offering made by fire to יהוה. On the eighth day there shall be a set-apart gathering for you, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to יהוה. It is a closing festival, you do no servile work.
The most important are:
The circling of the altar seven times instead of once while carrying the four species and reciting the Hoshana prayer (Judaism tradition)
            The beating of willow which sound like the wind (Ruach/spirit) an image of the Ruach HaQodesh.
In Yochanan 7:37-38 Yehoshua is speaking of the coming of the Ruach HaQodesh.
      At this time of Succoth,
Yeshayahu 12:3 and you shall draw water with joy from the fountains of deliverance.” Was often quoted
The water drawing ceremony took on a new dimension of meaning when Yehoshua attended the feast of Succoth, on the seventh day of the feast during Hoshana Rabba , the great salvation. During this day the priest circled the altar seven times (Psalm 118:25) and the cry “save now” was repeated seven times.
Yehoshua statement in Yochanan 7:37-39 was said on Hoshana Rabba.
      In the scriptures there is a link between water and the outpouring of the Ruach HaQodesh. Yehoshua told the woman at the well to drink of living water (Yoch. 4:7-14, Matt 5:6. Yeshayahu 44:3 links the pouring out of Elohim’ Ruach/Spirit. Also in Ya’El (Joel) 2:23,28, Acts 2:1-4, 14-17 and Yechezk’El 39:22,27-29. Water and the Spirit (Ruach ) are connected in Psalm (Tehillim) 42:1-4, Zechar. 13:1, Rev. 7:17.
Rain was a prominent feature part of the feast of Succoth, as rain is part of the full and rich harvest. The rain represents the outpouring of the Ruach HaQodesh, according to the prophet Ya’El when Elohim would rain His Spirit/Ruach upon all flesh.
● Festivals of Light. (Light of the Temple). The illumination of the Temple (Beit HaMikdash) at the end of the first day according to tradition, the priest and the Levites went down to the court of the women. Four enormous golden candlesticks were set up. Each candlestick 50 cubits eight (around 22meters) with four golden bowls placed upon them and four ladders resting against each.
Four youth of priestly descend stood at the top of the ladders holding jar containing.5 gallons of pure olive oil.
The light emanating from the four candlesticks was so bright that it is written in the mishna that there was no courtyard in Yerushalayim that was not lit up with light.
Halacha: The light represent the shekina glory (Elohim’s presence) that once filled the Temple (1st King 8:10-11) Ezekiel 43:5. During this time the temple was thought of as “the light of the world” see Yochanan 8:12.
-        Israel: A light (witness) to the nations. Israel was chosen to be Elohim’s light to the world: D’varim 7:6-8 compare  Yoch: 8:12, 1:4,5,9, 3:19, 9:5, 12: 35-36, Prov. 6:23, B’reshit 1:3-4,14,15, Matt:5:14.
-        Elohim wanted a people out of the world whom he could use and work through, to show His glory to the world.
-        Israel was to be a witness to the world: Yeshayahu 43:1,10,12,14, Luke 24:44-49, Acts 1:1-8.
-        Israel as a corporate nation failed in her mission. Not only were the people disobedient, to the commandment of Elohim, but they also did not become light to the world. On the contrary, the world as a corporate people hated the “Jewish” people.
Israel remains Elohim’s chosen people (Rom. 11:25-29) and still has a role to play in the future (Rom. 11:12,15). The message of Messiah for the nations is spoken by the prophet
Yeshayahu 62:1-5 For Tsiyon’s sake I am not silent, and for Yerushalayim sake I do not rest, until her righteousness goes forth as brightness, and her deliverance as a lamp that burns.
Isa 62:2 and the nations (Goyim, gentiles) shall see your righteousness and all sovereigns your esteem. And you shall be called by a new name, which the mouth of יהוה designates.
Isa 62:3 and you shall be a crown of comeliness in the hand of יהוה, and a royal head-dress in the hand of your Elohim.
Isa 62:4 No longer are you called “Forsaken,” and no longer is your land called “Deserted.” But you shall be called “Ḥephtsiḇah,” and your land “Married,” for יהוה shall delight in you, and your land been married.
Isa 62:5 for as a young man marries a maiden, so shall your sons marry you. And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so shall your Elohim rejoice over you.

Yerushalayim will be the spiritual focal point of the world and this time been Israel’s “golden age” during the messianic age, because the prince of Yerushalayim, Yehoshua, the prince of peace, will reign from Yerushalayim. (Yeshayahu 2:24, 52:9-10, 62:7-8, Micah 4:1-3, Psalm 102:18-21, 125:1-2.
The day is coming when a restored and renewed Israel will once again be light to the nations.
The prophet Hoshea tell us that the coming of Messiah will be as the former and later rain (Hoshea 6:3) Yehoshua was born during the fall feast, and died at his first coming during the first month on the sacred calendar.
Rain speaks also of revival, restoration and returning to Elohim (T’shuvah in Hebrew).
Elohim has already declared that He would pour out His Ruach during the seventh month which is a spiritual picture of the end of age (Olam Azeh). So far have we seen only shower of blessing (Yechezk’el 34:26);
Believers shall call upon Yehowah and ask of him to send the rain on the people of the earth (Zechar. 10:1, Ask יהוה for rain in the time of the latter rain, יהוה who makes storm clouds. And He gives them showers of rain, the plants in the field to everyone.
Psalm 46:4 A river whose streams Make glad the city of Elohim, The set-apart dwelling of the Most High.
Psa 65:9 You have visited the earth and watered it, You greatly enrich it; The river of Elohim is filled with water; You provide their grain, For so You have prepared it.
Psa 65:10 Its ridges have been filled, Its furrows have been deepened, You make it soft with showers, you bless its growth.
Jer 5:23 ‘But this people has a backsliding and rebellious heart, they have turned aside and gone away.
Jer 5:24 ‘And they do not say in their heart, “Let us now fear יהוה our Elohim, who gives rain, both the former and the latter, in its season. He guards for us the appointed weeks of the harvest.”
Jer 31:10 “Hear the word of יהוה, O gentiles (Goyim, nations), and declare it in the isles afar off*, and say, ‘He who scattered Yisra’ĕl gathers him, and shall guard him as a shepherd his flock.’
Jer 31:11 “For יהוה shall ransom Yaʽaqoḇ, and redeem him from the hand of one stronger than he.
Jer 31:12 “And they shall come in and shall sing on the height of Tsiyon, and stream to the goodness of יהוה, for grain and for new wine and for oil, and for the young of the flock and the herd. And their being shall be like a well-watered garden, and never languish again.
* Here there is something very interesting to see in Hebrew: The word for "Isles" or "Coastlands" is the Hebrew word Ayy written alef, yod, yod. When we take the first letter of the names of Abraham, Itzahk and Ya'acov in Hebrew we have  alef (Abraham), yod (Itzakh), yod (Ya'acov). Yehowah did a promise to Abraham, Itzahk and Ya'acov concerning those living in the Isles afar off or Coastlands:
Gen 12:1  And Yehowah said to Abram, Go out of your country, and from your kindred, and from your father's house into a land that I will show you.
Gen 12:2  And I will make you a great nation. And I will bless you and make your name great. And you shall be a blessing.
Gen 12:3  And I will bless those that bless you and curse the one who curses you. And in you shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Gen 17:19  And God said, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son indeed. And you shall call his name Isaac. And I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him.
Gen 17:20  And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall father twelve chiefs, and I will make him a great nation.
Gen 17:21  But I will establish My covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this set time in the next year.
Gen 35:10  And God said to him, Your name is Jacob. Your name shall not be called Jacob any more, but Israel shall be your name. And He called his name Israel.
Gen 35:11  And God said to him, I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations* (Goyim/Gentiles) shall be from you, and kings shall come out of your loins.
* These are those scattered in the Isles afar off (Coastlands)
Gen 48:15 And he blessed Joseph and said, May God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who fed me all my life to this day,
Gen 48:16  the Angel who redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads. And let my name (Ya'acov/Ysrael) be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them grow like the fishes into a multitude in the midst of the earth.............
Gen 48:19 And his father refused and said, I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great, but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he is, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations (melo HaGoyim:Gentiles) .
Sha'ul recalls this verse when he says:
Rom 11:13 For I speak to you, the nations (Goyim/Gentiles); since I am the apostle of the nations, I glorify my ministry.......................
Rom 11:25  For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, lest you should be wise within yourselves; that blindness in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the nations (melo HaGoyim/ b'reshit 48:19) has comes in.
Rom 11:26 And so all Israel shall be saved; as it is written, "There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob (b'reshit 48:16).
This why the Hevrew word Ayy for Isles or Coastland is an acrostic for "Abraham, Ytzahk, Ya'acov (alef, yod,yod).

Jer 31:13 “Then shall a maiden rejoice in a dance, and young men and old, together. And I shall turn their mourning to joy, and shall comfort them, and shall make them rejoice from their sorrow,
Jer 31:14 and shall fill the being of the priests with fatness. And My people shall be satisfied with My goodness,” declares יהוה.
The fullness of this feast will be experienced at the coming of Messiah Yehoshua when he will reign during the messianic age, called Athid Lavo in Hebrew eschatology.
May Yehowah bless those who seek him diligently through Yehoshua HaMoschiach; Amen!